Líffræðifélag Íslands - biologia.is
Líffræðiráðstefnan 2017

Erindi/veggspjald / Talk/poster E70

The status and distribution of marine alien species in Icelandic waters

Höfundar / Authors: Ó. Sindri Gíslason (1), Guðrún G. Þórarinsdóttir (2), Karl Gunnarsson (2)

Starfsvettvangur / Affiliations: 1. Náttúrustofa Suðvesturlands, 2. Hafrannsóknastofnun

Kynnir / Presenter: Sindri Gíslason

During recent decades sixteen introduced marine species have been re¬corded in Icelandic waters. Amongst them are six algal species, four crustaceans, two molluscs, two species of fish, one ascidian, and one hydrozoan. The majority of the species are likely to have been transported to Iceland with ships either as biofouling on the outside hull or in ballast water. Ballast stones or sand are proposed as a possible means of transport for some species.
Most of the introduced marine species in Iceland are likely originated in Europe, as has been confirmed for three of the species by genetic comparisons with populations elsewhere in the North Atlantic. The Atlantic rock crab is the only species that can be said with certainty to have been introduced from the Northwest Atlantic. All the introduced species have been found in littoral or shallow water habitats.
Most of the introduced species were first detected in south-western Iceland where the sea temperature is highest and the busiest harbours are located. In general only a small part of introduced species becomes invasive. Of the introduced marine species in Iceland Heterosigma akashiwo, Gonionemus vertens, the serrated wrack, Atlantic rock crab, European brown shrimp, the Sea vase tunicate, and the European flounder are considered invasive or potentially invasive.